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PPR Study
ability grouping A type of grouping where students are placed together according to their skill level, in high, middle or low groups. The TExES exam does not like this practice as research indicates that it is not very effective and has some negative consequences.
abstract Characterized only in thought; non-concrete. Considered apart from concrete existence.Not applied or practical; theoretical.
active engagement Student are actively participating in an activity in a meaningful, hands-on way. This type of activity is more likely to help students to understand and remember the concept or lesson.
acitve listening Paying close attention to what is currently being said. Often the listener is silently making mental notes and focusing on not just the content, but also any emotional content, as well, and connecting what is being said to prior knowledge and experience.
age appropriate Instructional lessons, activities, etc, that fit the development, language and ability level of the child. This is not necessarily the same thing as developmentally appropriate, since a child's developmental level may not be the same as his/her age level.
alternative assessment A type of evaluation other than a conventional test. It is sometimes used with students who cannot take a conventional test for some reason or for whom a conventional test is not an accurate assessment of their knowledge or ability.
analysis Taking knowledge apart to understand how it fits together. It is one of the higher order thinking skills.
application Applying or using what is known to solve an actual problem.
Admission, Review, and Dismissal (ARD) Committee In Texas a team that determines a student's eligibility for special education services, reviews the eligibility on a regular basis, and determines an appropriate individual education plan for the student.
assessment S way of monitoring progress; the act of testing, determining an evaluation of a particular skill or content area; includes many different approaches and formats, formal, informal and authentic evaluation procedures.
assimilation (Piaget) According to Piaget this is the process of fitting new ideas or concepts into existing ideas or concepts. It suggests that a child may change or alter what he perceives in the outside world in order to fit his internal world.
authentic assessment Using evaluations procedures that measure exactly what learning has occurred. It literally means "real" and usually consists of a product that the student produces to demonstrate knowledge or mastery of a skill.
autonomy The process of becoming independent and regulating one's own behavior.
Bloom's Taxonomy Proposed by Benjamin Bloom this is a classification tool developed to categorize learning from low level thinking to very high level thinking.
constructivism An instructional approach based on the theory on the idea that children build understanding by an active learning process. Students build their own learning and knowledge by exploration, discovery and questioning.
content validity How well a test measures what is was designed to measure.
deductive reasoning The process of thinking from general terms to specific terms; framing thinks so as to eliminate ideas or possibilities one by one
ethical behavior Acting in the highest moral principles and values. For educators in Texas it means behavior and practices that conform to the Texas Educators' Code of Ethics
evaluation Critical thinking that involves making and supporting judgments. This is one of the higher order thinking skills in Bloom's Taxonomy.
extrinsic motivation Wanting to do something, behaving in a certain way or achieving something because of some type of external reward. The reward could be something tangible, i.e. money, food, etc. or it could be intangible, i.e. praise, better grade, etc.
formal assessment Measuring knowledge or skill acquistion by means of a standardized test, very often using a commercially published test, although it doesn't have to be commercially published to be formal, but it would need to be standardized.
hands-on activities activities designed so that they require students to get actively engaged in the learning activity in a physical way.
higher oder questions questions that engage the child in more complex cogniive skills. It is usually used to refer to thinking process that are more sophisticated and on the upper level of Bloom's Taxonomy.
instructional objectives Specific and usually, but not always, written statements regardng the exact goals or desired student outcomes for a lesson or other learning activitiy. In other words, what the teacher hopes or expects to accomplish with the lesson.
instructional strategy A plan, tool, technique or approach for teaching. the mehtodology and process the teacher uses to help students understand and learn the instructional objectives.
accountability Holding schools responsible for what students learn. It is an important concept behind the high stakes testing movement in schools.
acculturation The adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture.
affective domain Attitudinal and emotional areas of learning, such as values and feelings.
affective objectives Learning objectives that focus on values, feeling, beliefs and emotions.
Aptitude Test A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
assertive discipline Classroom management approach (Leo Canter)
based on establishing clear limits and
expectations, insisting on acceptable
student behavior and delivering appropriate
consequences when rules are broken.
assimilation Process of changing one's own culture to the dominant cultural norms.
at risk students A term used to refer to children who are not currently identified as handicapped or disabled but who are considered to have greater than usual chance of school success due to any number of factors such as environment, prior instruction, motivation, etc. .
behavior disorder Problem when behavior deviates so much from appropriate behaviors for the child's age group that it significantly interferes with child leanring, growth and development.
behavior objective A form for writing an instructional objective that emphasizes precision and careful delineation of expected student behaviors, the testing situation and the desired performance criterion.
bottom-up processing Starting with skills and moving to whole knowledge, starting with parts and working toward the whole. An example is learning sounds, then words, then sentences, etc.
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education A landmark decision of the United States Supreme court that declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students and denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional.
bilingual education Second language instruction in which students are instructed in academic subject areas in their native language while simultaneously being taught to speak and write in the second language.
brainstorming An uncritical, non-evaluative process of generating associated ideas. The focus on brainstorming is the quantity of ideas and not necessarily their quality, as a starting point to examining and analyzing ideas.
classroom management Techniques used to maintain a healthy learning environment, relatively free of behavior problems.
compensatory education Programs designed to prevent or remediate learning problems among students from lower socioeconomic status communities. In other words, to compensate for factors that have prevented the students from learning and achieving succes in school.
competency based teacher education The general process by which the state provides a credential to an individual. Certification is based on the individual demonstrating and documenting achievment and success on specific criterial or competencies.
cooperative learning Approach to instruction in which students work with a small group of peers to achieve a common goal and help one another learn.
core curriculum Acommon course of study for all students often called for by essentialist reforms in the 1980's
cultural pluralism A condition in which many cultures coexist within a society and still maintain their cultural uniqueness.
curriculum All the courses of study offered by an educational institution
De Facto Segregation segregation "by fact," i.e., segregation that results from such factors as housing patterns rather than law.
De Jure Segregation Segregation that is imposed by law.
diagnostic test A test that helps the teacher to determine students areas of weakness. It helps to identify specific areas, skills or knowledge that are problems for the student.
due process A judicial requirement that enacted laws may not contain provisions that result in the unfair, arbitrary, or unreasonable treatment of an individual.
equilibration Piaget's term for the tendency to seek a stable balance among cognitive elements; achieved through a balance between assimilation and accommodation.
Erik Erickson A neo-Freudian psychologist that hypothesized that people f pass through 8 social development stages from infancy to old age. Each challenge has an outcome that affects a person's social and personality development.
1. Infancy: Birth to 18 Months Ego Development Outcome: Trust vs. Mistrust Basic strength: Drive and Hope
2. Early Childhood: 18 Months to 3 Years Ego Development Outcome: Autonomy vs. Shame Basic Strengths: Self-control, Courage, and Will
3. Play Age: 3 to 5 Years Ego Development Outcome: Initiative vs. Guilt Basic Strength: Purpose
4. School Age: 6 to 12 Years Ego Development Outcome: Industry vs. Inferiority Basic Strengths: Method and Competence
5. Adolescence: 12 to 18 Years Ego Development Outcome: Identity vs. Role Confusion Basic Strengths: Devotion and Fidelity
6. Young Adulthood: 18 to 35 Ego Development Outcome: Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation Basic Strengths: Affiliation and Love
7. Middle Adulthood: 35 to 55 or 65 Ego Development Outcome: Generativity vs. Self absorption or Stagnation Basic Strengths: Production and Care
8. Late Adulthood: 55 or 65 to Death Ego Development Outcome: Integrity vs. Despair Basic Strengths: Wisdom
ethnic group A group of people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture.
field independent learners Students who are not as dependent on the teacher, other students and the learning environment.
field dependent learners Students who learn best with teacher and peer interaction and who rely heavily on the learning environment.
fixed interval schedule In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
fixed ratio schedule Schedule of reinforcement in which a specific number of correct responses is required before reinforcement can be obtained.
generalization Transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus (psychology). A skill or behavior learned in one context, situation or environment is also used and implemented in different situatiosn or environments.
William Glasser The developer of reality therapy and choice theory. His ideas, focus on personal choice, personal responsibility and personal transformation,
grade equivalent score Measure of grade level based on comparison with norming samples from each grade. Other words, comparing a students performance on a standardized assessment to the grade level of other students with similar performance.
Head Start A federally funded preschool program for children from low-income families that also provides healthcare, nutrition services, and social services( part of the economic opportunity act of 1964 during the Johnson administration).
heuristics Sets of strategies, rather than strict rules, that act as guidelines for discovery-oriented problem solving.
House Bill 72 Series of education reforms in TX headed by Ross Perot that gave higher teacher salaries, more teacher requirements, and the no pass no play rule.
I-Message Clear nonaccusatory statement of how something is affecting you practically and emotionally.
integration Process of bringing people of different races in schools together rather than in separate schools or settings.
intrinsic motivation A desire to do something that comes from within oneself. Type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner.
Learning center A specific area in the classroom where students can work at their own ability levels and where materials and activities may be used to develop knowledge in a given subject area(s).
mainstreaming The practice of educating students with special needs in regular classes during specific time periods based on their skills.
mean The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
median The score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores.
mental retardation A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score (IQ) below 70 and difficulty in adapting behavior consists with IQ. The term has been changed to intellectual disability.
mode The most frequently occurring score in a distribution; it is the simplest measure of central tendency to determine.
Morrill Act (1862) Federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges.
multicultural education Instruction that integrates throughout the curriculum the perspectives and experiences of numerous cultural groups.
Nation At Risk 1983 National Commission report calling for extensive educational reforms, including more academic course requirements, more stringent college entrance requirements, upgraded and updated textbooks, and longer school days and year.
norm referenced test A test designed to indicate how an individual performs in relation to a comparison of grade/age level peers. An IQ test is an example of this.
Northwest Ordinance The law that advocated some sort of elementary education should be provided free, at public expense and under public control, for everyone who could not afford or did not want private schooling.
operant conditioning Learning that is strengthened when behavior is followed by positive reinforcement.
programmed instruction A set of instructional materials that students can use to teach themselves about a particular topic. It features self-pacing, immediate feedback, and division of materials into small units (frames).
punishment Outcome or consequence of a behavior that weakens the probability of the behavior. Punishment is usually in the form of an aversive, or unpleasant consequence.
reinforcement A stimulus that strengthens or increases a desired behavior. While punishment results in a decrease or weakening of undesirable behavior, reinforcement results in the strengthening or increase of the desired behavior.
reliability The ability of a test to yield nearly the same score when the same people are tested and then retested on the same test or an alternative form of the test. It is related to the concept of consistency.
remediation An educational program designed to teach a person to overcome an academic weakness or need through additional and or specialized services and education.
school board The governing body of a school district responsible for the development or approval of educational policies, approval of the budget, hiring of the superintendent, and other personnel matters.
self fulfilling prophecy A phenomenon whereby observers bring about what they expect to happen or what they perceive to be true.
shaping An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. It is used when the student's present level of the behavior is a long way from the desired level.
B. F. Skinner An American psychologist known for his research in the area of learning and conditioning. He is known as the "father" of behavioral theory, that behavior change is accomplished through the appropriate use of reinforcement.
Smith Hughes Act Legislation for government funding to go to public schools to provide vocational support and education in 1917.
socioeconomic status (SES) A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, place of residence, and other factors.
Socratic Method The method of teaching used by the Greek philosopher Socrates. It employs a question-and-answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason.
spiral curriculum Bruner's process of building on a student's previous kowledge to introduce new and broader concepts that are related.
standard deviation A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score (the square root of the variance).
standardized test A test with uniform procedures for administration and scoring. Many standardized tests allow a person's performance to be compared with the performance of other individuals.
stanine Whole-number scores from 1 to 9, each representing a wide range of raaw scores. Stanine scores combine some of the properties of percentile ranks with some of the properties of standard scores.
student centered (learner centered) Instruction which considers the ability and needs of the student in the planning process. Instruction focuses on the outcomes or behaviors expected and desired by the learners.
summative evaluation Evaluation conducted after instruction to assess students' final achievement.
time on task Time spent actively engaged in learning the task at hand.
time out A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and removed from social reinforcement and interaction for a specified time (usually one minute for each year old the child's age).
transfer Occurs when a student connects the new knowledge being presented to familiar concepts.
values-centered curriculum Places special emphasis on moral and ethical issue. More popularly known as character education.
Portfolio A collection of examples of a person's work. For example, samples of products indicating an individual's proficiency and skill in performing a certain type of work.
Annual Teacher Appraisal In Texas these are required to support and assist teachers in identifying areas of needed approval in teaching so that they can obtain appropriate professional development.
Texas Education Agency (TEA) The state agency in Texas that has administrative and supervisory authority over the operation of public schools. Implements laws passed by the legislature and establishes policies and procedures for implement laws and other legal requirements.
Workstations An instructional approach that establishes instructional areas where students work individually or in small groups to work independently on instructional tasks and projects.
Syntax A major component of grammar, it is the rules by which words are put together in the right form and order to appropriately form sentences, phrases and clauses.
Semantics The meaning of words, closely related to the concept of vocabulary. The relationship between and among words and their various meanings.
Baseline Means the beginning point. When used with a word like "data" or "assessment" it refers to where a student was before beginning a lesson or intervention.
Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) A component of an IEP it is developed for students with special behavior problems and identifies the strategies and steps school personnel will use with the student to address the behavior.
Reflection Thinking about something one has done or something that has been done as a means of analyzing its effectiveness and planning any needed changes or alterations for the future.
Elaboration To expand or build upon something that was done or said.
Direct instruction An instructional approach to academic subjects that emphasizes the use of carefully sequenced steps that include demonstration, modeling, guided practice, and independent application.
Concept A type of graphic organizer that provides a visual picture to assist in understanding a concept or term.
Authentic artifact A real example or item, such as an actual piece of clothing worn in the civil war, or an actual letter from an historical figure, or an actual plant or mineral being discussed in science class.
Syncretic thinking The attempted reconciliation, melding or union of different or opposing principles, practices, or parties, as in philosophy or religion. In language it can also mean the merging of two or more originally different inflectional forms.
Inclusion classroom A classroom where students with disabilities are taught together with their nondisabled peers.
Positive reinforcement The strengthening of desired behavior by giving the individual something they want, i.e. praise, extra points, attention, etc.
Negative reinforcement The strengthening of desired behavior by taking away something the individual doesn't want, i.e. staying in class for recess, ignoring them, etc.
Wait time (or wait and think time) Refers to pausing after asking a student a question to give him or her time to think about the question and the answer. This approach usually result in better quality, higher level answers from students.
Venn diagram A type of graphic organizer that assists students in understanding similarities and differences between two or more concepts, topics or terms. Consists of overlapping circles representing the concepts or terms under discussion.
Semantic map A type of graphic organizer that visually displays the relationships among various words and their meanings.
Sensorimotor Piaget's first stage of cognitive development. Birth through ages 18-24 months. infants are only aware of what is immediately in front of them. They focus on what they see, what they are doing, and physical interactions with their immediate environment.
Multidisciplinary A lesson that or study that incorporates and integrates knowledge and activities from different subject areas, such as science, math, and social studies.
Bookmark/Favorites A tool on an Internet browser (Explorer, Firefox) to save website addresses for later use.
Search engine An Internet program that allows a user to find website and other documents on a particular subject (Google, Bing, Yahoo, etc.)
Simulation In terms of computers this is a program that allows a user to engage in an activity or task that is close to the actual thing.
Drill and practice This is an instructional approach used to help students increase mastery of a concept or skill and to maintain existing knowledge and skills. For instance, practicing a certain type of math problem.
Site-based management In terms of schools, this refers to teachers, administrators, parents, and other community members actively participating in making decisions to improve student learning within a school.
Inquiry-based learning Students develop hypotheses, collect information/data to test the hypotheses and analyze information/data and formulate conclusions based on the analyses. This is sometimes referred to as the scientific method.
Problem-based learning Students acquire knowledge and deepen their understanding as a result of developing solutions to real life problems.
Bloom's Taxonomy Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives within education proposed in 1956 by a committee of educators chaired by Benjamin Bloom.
Bloom's Taxonomy Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains": Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor. Teachers should teach to the higher levels of the cognitive domain.
Simulation It is often used when the actual thing is not possible or desirable. It is used o increase creativity and problem solving skill and to expand a student's understanding of concepts.

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