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SUTHERLAND TEST 4
Question Answer
person responsible for the day to day activities of the party national chairperson
how are voters attracted to a party performance/ politics
group of individuals with a common interest on which every political party depends coalition
what lie did GHWB say in office no new taxes
what has america always been 2 party system
where did GHWB say new taxes and to who 1988 NOLA rep. convention; michael dukakis
what led to GHWB having such a high approval rating going after hussein
what was GHWB's peak approval rating 80%
who played GHWB on SNL dana carvey
what does spending lead to deficit
how much did bush tax the middle class 3-5%
what type of people did the new deal attract north liberal, west democrat, african american, white southerner
what is an example of a coalition freedom congress (rick meadows- NC/R)
what happens if you have no coalition nothing gets done
where do most presidents fail campaign promises
what did GHWB say "read my lips"
what happens to lowering taxes the more you do it less economic (people who save most are rich)
what are the 4 stages in becoming president 1. planning/ announcing2. caucus/ primary (delegate gathering)3. national convention (puppet show)4. general election (spring back to middle)
what is the hardest part of becoming president caucus/ primary phase
what are the 2 types of campaigns nomination/ election
what does success in nomination require money, media attention, momentum
way in which candidates attempt to manipulate money, media attention, and momentum to get nomination campaign strategy
how long are campaigns in most countries 2 months
how long are campaigns in america 1.5 years
supreme power within each of the parties that nominates party's p/vp candidates and makes platform national convention
how often does the national convention meet 4 years
what happens at each national convention state delegates cast votes (known in advance)
what were delegates from 1830-1960 political elites (bosses like a state's governor or mayor controlled who went to the convention and how people voted)
what changed the elite dominated methods of the national party convention democratic 1968 convention
what 2 main things do candidates need to do raise $/ get ratings
do conventions get publicity no
what most important quality does a candidate have to have endurance
what is the convention considered a conclusion
what are the limits on campaigns in europe no campaigning 2 days before
why do some people prefer elites to choose nominees picked great candidates in past
what is the dilemma with announcing a run dont want to announce too early/ late
what candidates are the closest to the middle biden/ rubio
how did truman become president 1944 elites didn't like FDR's 3rd VP
what candidate was very popular and fought over by parties eisenhower
how did eisenhower run republican
what events happened in 1968 that led to the disastrous D convention RIP malcom x/ mlk/ bobby kennedy; civil rights; LBJ didn't know extent of african american ghettos; vietnam war
what was the mcgovern fraser commission concluded that to correct representation, new rules had to be written to make the democratic party more open to input from the public
what did the mcgovern fraser commission prohibit party leaders handpicking convention delegates
what 2 things did the mcgovern fraser commission require candidates be selected by state run primary or caucus
national party leaders who automatically get a delegate slot at the national party convention based on the current office they hold (remnant of old system) superdelegate
what is the power of superdelegates can override votes (rarely do)
what is the invisible primary period before any votes are cast when a candidate competes to win early support from the elite of the party and create a positive first impression
how does a candidate portray themselves during the invisible primary good record/ character to party elites, media, and public
what 2 things must a candidate do during the invisible primary distinguish themselves/ seek media attention but avoid blunders
what are the first test of candidates' vote getting abilities iowa caucus
when did the iowa caucus start 1972
what did the iowa caucus do to bernie sanders put him on map
what is a caucus system for selection convention delegates used in a dozen (rural) states in which voters attend an open meeting to express preferences
who is the invisible primary directed at elected officials, fundraisers, aides, endorsements
what 2 things are said to have helped obama win the race 1. harvard law professor 2. community organizer
what was obama's secret smoked
how is participation for caucuses lower than primaries since it takes more time
why did sanders have an advantage in the caucus proportional representation not winner takes all
what do iowa caucuses attract media
where do candidates spend most of their time iowa
what is a primary election in which a state's voters go to the polls to express their preference for a party's nominee for president
when/ where does primary season begin NH/ winter (1 week after iowa)
why are states moving up their primaries media attention
what is frontloading tendency of states to hold their primaries early in the calendar to capitalize on media attention
what happened in the 1980 delegate chase GHWB won over reagan in iowa and claimed to possess "the big mo"
where do caucuses meet at home with citizens
why dont iowa/ new hampshire represent the USA too small/ white
what other states do candidates visit swing states
how do candidates get momentum *beat people they werent predicted to beat *collect margins above predictions*not lose to people they expected to win against
what is the criticism of primaries/ caucuses disproportionate attention goes to early caucuses/ primaries
why do prominent politicians find it difficult to run have to take time out of their elected duties (rubio)
what % of adults vote in primaries/ caucuses 25%/ 5% (20% in iowa)
describe voters in caucuses/ primaries older/ affluent
what plays a large role in caucuses/ primaries $
what does the primary/ caucus system give power to media (decides who has momentum)
why aren't party conventions dramatic winner is a foregone conclusion
what is the network response to conventions cut coverage
how are conventions set up scripted to present party in a good light
what are conventions considered infomercials (energize followers for candidate)
what does the convention focus on party platform
what is a party platform party's statement of goals/ policies for the next 4 years that is drafted prior to the convention by a committee whose members are chosen in proportion
where do party leaders organize compromises behind the scenes to not draw media attention
what party is more represented in primary/ caucus republican
how many views did romney's convention get 30 million
how many views did the pats/ giants game get 111 million
what are the 2 best parts of the convention 1. VP pick (wednesday)2. acceptance speech (thursday)
how do candidates pick a VP before convention
what is the main order of business at conventions formally nominating candidates
what is the most prevalent means to reach voters television
what is important for candidates to reach young people internet
what is direct mail raising $ for a political cause or candidate in which information/ requests for money are sent to people whose names appear on lists of those who have supported similar views/ candidates in the past
is direct mail more expensive than internet yes
what has direct mail become digital
what are the 2 most important internet platforms to reach voters twitter/ facebook
whose campaign was the most high tech obama's 2012
what is a necessity for campaigns high tech
what 2 factors give the candidate attention 1. TV (advertising budget) 2. news coverage
what does campaign coverage intertwine news about candidates/ human interest
what 10 things does a candidate need to organize a campaign 1. manager2. fundraiser3. campaign counsel 4. media/ campaign consultant5. volunteers6. logistics 7. research staff/ policy advisors8. pollster9. press secretary10. website
what does a campaign manager do stops a candidate get bogged down in organizational details (carville)
what does a campaign counsel do legal assistance with financing laws
what happened with clinton's speech was too long and people went to sleep
what does a campaign staff do volunteers to ring doorbells/ raise money/ generate excitement
what must a candidate ensure that events are publicized/ attended/ scheduled
what do policy advisors do help candidates keep up with events
how often do candidates poll everyday/ week
what are campaign contributions donations made directly to a candidate or to party that must be reported to the FEC
what are the restrictions on campaign contributions 2,600 per candidate/ 32,400 per party
what are independent expenditures expenses on behalf of a political message that are made by groups that are uncoordinated with any candidate's campaign
what did watergate do to campaign financing expose illegal campaign funds
what was the federal election campaign act passed in 1974 for reforming campaign finances that created the FEC and provided limits on the disclosure of campaign contributions
what did FECA require disclose who has contributed money to campaigns and how the money has been spent
what did FECA limit donations to 1,000 (2,000 by mccain feingold with inflation)
how were interest groups regulated by FECA regulations on PACS limited candidates 5000 per election
what is the FEC 6 member bipartisan agency that administers/ enforces campaign law and acts as a repository for campaign spending
how does the FEC use taxpayer $ to fund campaigns can check off $3 box on tax returns for money that IS LIMITED during campaigns (only checked by 7% of taxpayers)
what happened in 2012 with regards to public campaign funding no presidential candidate applied for federal funds
what is soft money not subject to any contribution limits until mccain feingold, hard to keep tabs on, GOES TO A POLITICAL PARTY NOT CANDIDATE
who were mccain/ feingold republican from arizona/ democrat from wisconsin
what did mccain/ feingold do passed a bill in 2002 to ban soft money (limit set at 25000 with inflation)
who often gives to independent expenditures rich individuals
what are 527 groups independent political groups that are not subject to contribution restrictions because they do not directly seek the election of a particular candidate
what does section 527 of the tax code state contributions of 527 groups must be reported to the IRS
can 527 groups coordinate with candidates no
what are 527 groups similar to PAC
what is a famous 527 group action anti-kerry group ran commercials against kerry's military service
who did kerry lose to bush
how were independent expeditures restricted couldn't pay for electioneering in last 60 days of campaigns
who was david bossie president of citizens united (conservative non profit) that made hillary the movie
what was citizens united v. FEC 2010 landmark supreme court case that ruled that individuals, corporations, unions could donate unlimited amounts of money to groups that make independent political expenditures
what did citizens united allow more loopholes
what was the ruling in citizens united unconstitutional against free speech
what did the supreme court consider speech/ people to be money/ corporations
what do campaign expenditures go to SPECIFIC CAMPAIGN
what do independent expenditures go to third party agency
what are 527 groups considered a new loophole for soft money
where does hard money go candidate
what did obama spend less on general election
what allowed 501c groups citizens united
what are 501c groups groups that are exempt from reporting their contributions and can receive unlimited contributions
what does section 501c of the tax code state can't spend more than half their funds
does the party platform change for midterm elections no
what are 501c groups also known as superPAC
when do 501c groups have to report contributions when they are specifically for a political ad
what are superPACs independent expenditure only PACS that can accept donations of any size and can endorse candidates
what was the total cost of 2012 campaigns $6.3 billion
how much do american elections cost per person as much as a DVD movie
how much of the GDP is spent on political activity .05%
who is bill bradley d senator from NJ who left because too much time was spent on fund raising
what is the correlation between spending and performance the more candidates spend, the worse they do (those who face a tough opponent must raise more $)
what is an example of those spending more not always winning meg whitman v. jerry brown
what did jerry brown take federal aid
what is selective perception phenomenon that people's beliefs often guide what they pay the most attention to and how they interpret events
who is bob corker republican from tennessee who is leaving the senate because he disagrees with trump
what do candidates receive in europe free tv air time
what does the doctrine of sufficiency ask does $ buy victory
what is more important– having enough money or having more enough
what is the law of discriminatory return eventually after you buy so much of something, it's not as good (the more you spend on a campaign, the less it matters)
do those who spend more always win no
what 3 things can a campaign do 1. reinforce 2. activate 3. convert
what is the most important power of a campaign reinforce
what does a campaign activate voters to do spend time/ $
do campaigns convert RARELY
what 2 factors lead to the fact that campaigns rarely convert selective perception/ longtime party identification
who is an example of selective perception trump's base (would still support if he shot someone in central park)
what do selective perception/ longtime party advantages also lead to incumbents starting with an advantage
when are voters the most persuadable agree with preferred candidate on only one issue
how do politicians draw support from the other party wedge issues (issues that the other party is divided on i.e. abortion)
why does florida often go blue many people from the north live there
what 4 states make up the rust belt pennsylvania, ohio, michigan, wisconsin
what is the reason that hillary lost to obama he got rust belt
what is a notable swing state virginia
why was it a surprise that trump took pennsylvania hadn't gone republican since 1984
what are a majority of americans in regard to ideological identification moderate with slightly more conservative than liberal
how are independents ideologically very moderate with slightly more extreme conservative than extreme liberal
what is the democratic party ideologically mostly moderate but leans very left
what is the republican party ideologically mostly conservative with a fair amount of moderate
what 5 tasks should a party perform 1. pick candidates (not local)2. run campaigns3. give cues to voters (political image)4. articulate policies5. coordinate policymaking
are there more liberal republicans or conservative democrats conservative democrats
what ideological battle was sanders v. hillary liberal v. moderate
who runs the campaign senatorial/ house committee in DC
what do republicans focus on in regards to voting districts local (redraw lines)
where does policy start the party
who determines policy party in power
what happens with the more of a party in congress the more that party gets done
what party is the house speaker republican
what is a nomination party's official endorsement that allows a candidate to be listed on the ballot
what do primaries transfer transfers nomination function from party organization to party identifiers
what do parties coordinate policymaking between legislative/ executive
what is the rational choice theory explains political processes and outcomes as consequences of purposeful behaviors
what 2 things does rational choice theory assume 1. voters want to maximize the chances that the policies they favor will be adopted2. parties want to win office
why do parties differentiate themselves in order to win over loyal adherents who will provide regular support
how did the country lean from 1932-68 left
where must candidates move to adjust to the country center – right
what party of the party gets candidate loyalty base
who was anti party washington
what feud led to parties jefferson v. hamilton
what did FDR say that country would be without him communist
who are the swing voters independents
who are blue dog democrats conservative democrats
what ideology is ted cruz extremely conservative
what ideology are LA senators conservative
what ideology is mccain moderate
what ideology was eisenhower liberal republican
what is a political party men/ women seeking to control gov't apparatus by gaining office in duly constituted election
is a political party a team why no (hard to lead)
when was a party most like a team 32-64
what is the 3 headed giant the 3 aspects of a party
what are the 3 heads of the party 1. electorate (registered voters 2. organization (paid workers) 3. gov't (elected)
does grace traina want to kill herself after typing these yes
linkage institution translates input from public into output from policymakers
4 main linkage institutions parties, elections, interest groups, media
what is a critical election electoral "earthquake" where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and majority party is displaced (marked by national crisis)
what is party realignment displacement of the majority party by the minority party during a critical election period
when was the first party system 1796-1824
what did the first party system lack concentrated opposition
who inaugurated party stem and how hamilton (needed a party to garner support for his national bank)
what was the first and shortest lived party federalist
what was the end of the federalist party john adams defeated in reelection (no 50% house had to choose)
what did the early parties want to do to one another destroy
what had not yet taken hold during the early parties loyal opposition/ rotation of power
what was the party that crushed the federalists led by virginians jefferson, madison, monroe and was known as democratic republicans or jeffersonians
where did the democratic republicans come from anti federalists
where was the democratic republican coalition agrarian interest in rural south
what happened to the democratic republicans in 1824 torn apart by factions as they tried to appeal to too many
when was jackson/ democrats v. the whigs 1828-1856
who is the father of the democratic party andrew jackson
what was jackson's coalition in the 1828 election southerners/ poor whites/ westerners
when was the first realignment 1828 election with jackson
how did jackson broaden political opportunity got rid of property requirements for voting
who was jackson's successor martin van buren
what was the federalist coalition capitalists in NE
what is a possible current faction alt right
who is the father of the republican party lincoln
what did van buren say about parties a single party could not please everyone and the governing party needed a loyal opposition to represent parts of society it could not
what was the democrat opposition whigs
what were the whigs' coalition northern industrialists/ southern planters brought together by democratic policies they opposed
when were the 2 republican eras 1860-1928
what dominated parties in the 1850s slavery
when was the 2nd party realignment 1860 lincoln election
what were republicans originally antislavery party
what did the civil war do to the parties allowed republicans to thrive for 60 years while democrats controlled the less populated south
when was the 2nd republican era 1896 election
who was the 1896 election between william jennings bryan v. mckinley
what did bryan want to do link money with silver to devalue and help debtors
when did the republicans stop dominating great depression
when was the new deal coalition 1932-1964
what did hoover do badly handled the depression by stating it was a matter of supply and demand
what was the 3rd realignment 1932 election of roosevelt
what were the 6 major parts of the new deal coalition 1. urban dwellers2. labor unions3. catholics/ jews4. poor5. southerners6. african americans
what event gave nixon a place to become president LBJ handling of vietnam war
was the southern realignment a national thing no
when was the southern realignment/ era of divided party gov't 1968-2017
what was nixon's southern strategy emphasizing states' rights, law/ order, and strong military
what did the southern strategy accomplished slowly converted the southern jim crow democrats to republicans
what is the divided gov't typically republican president and democratic congress
what happens during divided gov't it is nearly impossible to get anything done
what has divided gov't caused party dealignment
what is party dealignment gradual disengagement of people from the parties
describe the american political pyramid national commitee/ convention – top state party – middlelocal party- bottom
what used to be the main party urban (local)
what is a party machine type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements such as patronage to win votes (late 1800s- new deal)
what type of party is an urban machine local
what does the national party focus on president, senate, house
when did the progressive reforms take place 1920s
what happens after the leader of a party machine dies corruption
what machine did FDR come out of NYC tammany hall
why did urban parties used to be the main parties party bosses
what is an example of a party machine longs
what are patronages key inducements that get awarded for political reasons (job, promotion, contract) and sold to highest bitter
what are patronages also know as and who started them spoils system; jackson
what are the 2 main party machines nyc/ chicago
who led the chicago party machine democrat richard daley
what are state parties fluid association of individuals, groups, organizations
how are PA parties well organized/ funded
how are CA parties weak/ broke
what is the question in designing voting tickets how to list candidates (single column v. random)
what are closed primaries elections to select nominees in which only people who have registered in advance with that party can vote (party loyalty)
what are open primaries voters can register with a party on election day (i.e. virginia)
what type of primary does the party favor closed
what is the trend/ pros regarding open primaries more popular/ have more voters to compete for support
what is the risk of open primaries one side will register for the other and vote for least visible candidate
what does a closed primary encourage straight ticket (all for one party) voting
what do all state parties have today headquarters
what do state parties really provide technical services
what elections does a state party oversee wh/ governor
what type of primary attracts independents open
who is the most significant person in a party national chairsperson
what is the national convention meeting of party delegates every 4 years to choose a presidential ticket/ write platform
what is the national committee one of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions and is composed of representatives from the states/ territories

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