Home   flash cards   The Endocrine System exam 4

The Endocrine System exam 4
Question Answer
The endocrine system uses what type of communication tool for long-range communication? hormones
What is the purpose of hormones in the endocrine system? Coordinating the functions of various tissues within the organism
The endocrine system is comprised of ______ that are specific for the production and release of specific hormones glands
How are hormones released? Due to a reaction to an external or internal stimulus
If you see a polar bear coming at you, what stimulus is activated and what hormone is released? An external stimulus is activated and the hormone epinephrine is released
But if you see a gummi bear and you eat it, what stimulus is released and what happens within the body? An internal stimulus is released and the body produces insulin for cells to import the glucose
What is the function of the parathyroid and thyroid glands? Regulate blood-calcium levels
What does thyroid glands secrete? thyroxine
WHat does the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland secrete? corticosteroids
What does the adrenal medulla of the adrenal gland secrete? Catecholamines
What types of sex hormones are released by the gonads? Male gonads release testosterone and female gonads release estrogen
What are the 4 categories of hormones? 1. proteins, 2. amine-derived,3. lipid-derived and 4. hydrophobicity
What are the names of the 2 parts of the pituitary gland? Hypophysis and the hypothalamus
Hormone signalling occurs via a _________ pathway, which is a series of events that initiate and end endocrine signaling
Even though hormones circulate throughout the body, they only target particular cells/tissues. True or False? True
One hormone produces one effect. True or False? False, one specific hormone can produce multiple effects
Is hormone secretion highly regulated? Yes
What are the steps to a simple pathway in hormone signaling? 1. An initial stimulus, 2. hormone secretion, 3. hormone circulation and 4. response from target cells, and 5. loss of signal via negative feedback and signal degradation
Why do some cells respond to a hormone, while the other cells do not? Responsive cells have the receptors for the specific hormone, while non-responsive cells don't.
The response of the cell is also dependent on the… hydrophobicity of the hormone
What does the binding of epinephrine do for endocrine signalling? increase metabolic activity, increased blood flow to skeletal muscle and decreased blood flow to digestive tract and kidneys
Some endocrine functions are subjected to ________ ________ by the ________ ________ negative feedback. secreted hormone.
What is a half-life? Time required for half of hormone to degrade
What is hyposecretion and hypersecretion? Hypo- too little secretion. Hyper- too much secretion
What 3 generalized pathways are favored for endocrine signaling? 1. Antagonistic signaling, 2. neurosecretory signaling and 3. cascades of hormone signaling organized as an axis
What is antagonistic signaling? Uses 2 hormones, 1 hormone produces a specific effect and the second hormone produces the opposite effect. This results in HOMEOSTASIS.
What is diabetes mellitus caused by? Impaired insulin signaling
What is type 1 diabetes? Lack of insulin produced/secreted by beta cells and is associated with destruction of beta cells by the immune system
What is type 2 diabetes? Insulin is produced/secreted normally, but target cells fail to respond properly and proper maintenance of nutrition and weight can ameliorate that

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Get Best Services from Our Business.